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Wolf Creek

We’ve been fighting for over ten years to protect Wolf Creek Pass, a critical wildlife corridor, from a massive 8,000-person resort development. Photo: Alex Pullen


Court Again Rejects Village at Wolf Creek Development Proposal

Read the Press Release HereRead the Press Release Here
Wolf Creek Ski

1. Legal

The Forest Service isn’t doing their job.

1. Legal

The Forest Service isn’t doing their job.

The USFS, influenced by the developers, has gone to great lengths to avoid a full, thorough, legal environmental analysis of the proposed “Village at Wolf Creek” subject to proper public review.

2. Environment

Wolf Creek Pass is a vital Colorado ecosystem.

2. Environment

Wolf Creek Pass is an invaluable Colorado ecosystem.

Wolf Creek Pass is identified by many conservation organizations as an extremely valuable southern Rockies ecosystem that the “Village at Wolf Creek” seriously endangers.

3. Community

Local communities will suffer the costs.

3. Community

Local communities will suffer the costs.

The main beneficiaries of the “Village at Wolf Creek” would be the developers, not the local communities which could, in fact, be negatively impacted by economic competition, overuse of public services (like emergency response), and changes in culture.

The Story

For decades, out-of-state developer B.J. “Red” McCombs has pursued his vision for a “Village at Wolf Creek” – a city of 8,000 people – at the top of Wolf Creek Pass. This massive development would be roughly the population of Aspen.

Wolf Creek Pass, 20 miles from the nearest town, is a remote landscape that is entirely surrounded by National Forest. Construction of the Village at Wolf Creek would dramatically impact the entire region. The proposal indefensibly disregards ecosystem health, wildlife needs, and public interests.

The “Village at Wolf Creek” development threatens:

  • A critical southern Rockies wildlife corridor
  • Backcountry recreation opportunities
  • Nearby local businesses
  • Rare, valuable fen wetlands
  • Water quality and quantity for downstream land users and anglers
  • Views from the highway and the Continental Divide Trail

What Wolf Creek Pass looks like now.

What is the “Village at Wolf Creek”?

The Village at Wolf Creek is planned to be an 8,000-person village containing 1,711 units comprised of hotels, condominiums, townhomes, single-family lots, and a commercial center.

A model of the complete proposed “Village.”

The History

In 1986 Leavell Properties, Inc. (later joined by Texas billionaire B. J. “Red” McCombs to form the Leavell-McCombs Joint Venture, or LMJV) swapped land with the United States Forest Service to obtain a property on top of Wolf Creek Pass surrounded by Forest Service land. McCombs, who now spearheads the project, expanded the plan to his “Village at Wolf Creek.” In order to construct the Village at Wolf creek, however, LMJV needs Forest Service approval to gain year-round highway access to the isolated property.

Since the beginning, the “Friends of Wolf Creek” – a coalition of conservation groups from around the state – have fought to ensure the development is never realized. So far we’ve been able to keep construction at bay, forcing the Forest Service to hand over documents and rewrite woefully inadequate Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). In 2006, we sued the Forest Service for inappropriately colluding with the developer during environmental assessments, and won. Our partner Rocky Mountain Wild sued the Forest Service three times for disregarding Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. Rocky Mountain Wild won the first two cases and the third is in process.

In May of 2017, we won another lawsuit, putting the development on hold yet again. A federal judge nullified the land exchange on grounds the Forest Service avoided a thorough analysis of the environmental impacts of development in their latest EIS and that they failed to meet independent review requirements. The judge agreed that the Forest Service shirked their responsibility by ignoring the immense impacts of building a city at 10,400’.

But McCombs and the Forest Service refused to accept the public’s verdict opposing the destructive project, and in February 2019 the Forest Service approved yet another scheme to give McCombs carte blanche for development. The 2019 decision simply hands over a paved access road to McCombs using precisely the same flawed environmental analysis used to justify the land exchange decision that was invalidated by the court in 2017. As we investigate the agency’s justification, the Forest Service finally started to hand over the documents behind its decision in March 2019, under court order, after fighting public transparency for 8 months.

It’s been a long 30-year journey, but we remain committed to ensuring the Village at Wolf Creek never defaces the heart of the San Juans.

For more detailed information please read the “Concise History of Wolf Creek.”

Views of Wolf Creek

A Tri-Fold Problem

We want the United States Forest Service (USFS) to stop making decisions to please out-of-state billionaires, but rather make decisions that are in the public interest – as they were created to do. We are certain that if they do their job correctly, the Village at Wolf Creek Pass will never be allowed. Read below for some of the key issues with the Village:

 1. Legal


The Forest Service isn’t doing their job


The USFS has a history of colluding with the developers.

No Analysis

The USFS has avoided thorough analysis of the environmental impacts of development.

No Independent Review

The USFS has failed to meet independent review requirements.


The USFS has disregarded two Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests. More about FOIAs.

 2. Environment


Wolf Creek Pass is a vital Colorado ecosystem

Key Migration Corridor

The area around Wolf Creek Pass (see maps below) is one of the most important wildlife movement corridors in the nation, and the most important wildlife linkage for lynx, bear, elk and other species in the San Juan Mountains.  The Pass connects the South San Juan Wilderness with the Weminuche Wilderness and is also a core reintroduction area for lynx.

Water and Quality and Quantity

Extensive development could negatively impact the quality and quantity of water in the Rio Grande watershed, hurting downstream land users and anglers.

Rare Wetlands

Wolf Creek Pass is home to valuable fen wetlands, which are a specific type of wetland that are groundwater-fed and peat-forming. Fen wetlands support more diverse plant and animal life than other wetlands, enriching the biodiversity at Wolf Creek. They also help reduce the risk of floods and improve water quality.

Most Annual Snowfall

Wolf Creek Pass receives the most snowfall annually in Colorado, which provides ideal habitat for endangered Lynx and other species. The concentrated snowpack on top of the pass also contributes to late season flow to the Rio Grand River.

Trail Views

Wild, undeveloped places are special. The proposed Village would transform the unspoiled views of Wolf Creek into just another mega-development.

Backcountry Recreation

The pristine Wolf Creek Pass area offers unsurpassed backcountry recreation opportunities for skiers, anglers, hunters, and hikers. A large development would devalue these activities.

The area around Wolf Creek Pass is the most important wildlife corridor in the San Juan Mountains. 

 3. Community


Local communities will suffer the costs

Tax Revenues and Costs

Tax revenue would benefit towns far away, but public costs would fall on closer municipalities, placing the burden on communities that won’t financially benefit from the development.

Strain On Public Services

The “village” would increase pressure on local public services (e.g. emergency) in Pagosa Springs over 25 hazardous miles away. Thousands of tourists will also clog up traffic on the pass, which can be treacherous in winter.

Change Wolf Creek Ski Area Forever

The proposed development would forever change the unique, small remote Wolf Creek Ski Area.

Hurt Local Economy

The “village” and its new commercial center would compete with existing local businesses.

#NoPillage Interviews

Recent News (More)

ECOFLIGHT: Migration Corridors on Wolf Creek Pass

| Lands Protection, Wildlife, Wolf Creek | No Comments
This summer the San Juan Citizens Alliance teamed up with Ecoflight for a flyover of the Southern San Juans. EcoFlight is a nonprofit organization that educates and advocates for the protection of remaining wild lands and wildlife habitat using small aircraft.…

PRESS RELEASE: Court Again Rejects Village at Wolf Creek Development Proposal

| Press Release, Wolf Creek | One Comment
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: October 21, 2022  A Federal District Court Thursday once again rejected plans by the would-be developers of the Village at Wolf Creek to gain access across national forest lands for the ill-conceived project. Senior  Federal Judge Christine…
Stop the Village at Wolf Creek

Challenging the Forest Service (again) over Village at Wolf Creek

| Lands Protection, Species, Wolf Creek | 2 Comments
Clean off those 'No Pillage' bumperstickers*, because here we go again. If you've lived in the area for long, you know the Village has a decades-long history. The short story is that a billionaire from Texas has long wanted to…
Wolf Creek Ski Area

Rio Grande National Forest Again Sides with Developer in Wolf Creek Access Issue

| Lands Protection, Species, Wolf Creek | No Comments
Photo: Alex Pullen OK, here we go again. Many of you joined us in submitting protests this last fall on the draft decision to provide road access to the Village. And for good reason. It's not surprising they went ahead and…

Stay informed about the Village at Wolf Creek!